Wednesday, 12 September 2012

Fundamental Duties

Fundamental Duties
The Fundamental Duties were added as Article 51A by the 42nd Amendment, 1976,
These were recommended by the Swaran Singh Committee.
These are non-justifiable i.e their compliance cannot be enforced.
Originally ten in number, the Fundamental Duties were increased to eleven by the 86th Amendment in 2002.
A citizen cannot enjoy rights in isolation because the rights of some are the duties of others. Therefore, the rights and duties are correlated.

Fundamental Duties  prescribed in constitution are as follows:
(a) It is the duty of every citizen to abide by the constitution and respect its ideal and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
(b) It is the duty to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
(c) It is the duty to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
(d) It is the duty of every citizen to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do.
(e) It is the duty to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
(f) It is the duty of every citizen to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
(g) It is the duty to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life and have compassion for living creatures.
(h) It is the duty of the citizen to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
(i) It is the duty of every citizen to safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
(j) It is the duty of every citizen to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievements.
(k) It is the duty of every parent or guardian to ensure that their child or ward was provided opportunities for education between the ages of six and fourteen years.( added by 86th Amendment in 2002)

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